Tuesday, January 4, 2011

Education in Ancient India

It is necessary to place in its historical context, cultural religious and educational concepts, contents and educators of the ancient civilization of India. It begins with the migration of Aryan peoples from the steppes of central Asia to the shores of rivers Indo and Ganges, Circa 2,000 BC It is in these moments when society is castes that survives today: the Brahmins or priests at the top, the warriors kchatrias or below, encompassing vanysias artisans, merchants and peasants, and the base, the Sudras or servants excluded, is the caste of pariahs, untouchables.

Religion Hindu permeates education. From the Vedic and Brahmanic variations brought by the Aryan peoples, to developments accounted Buddhism and Jainism arisen in the sixth century C. The teacher, guru, instructs, initiates and guides the disciple in spiritual formation. Can only access the guru's teaching members of the three-upper classes or Sudras servants and outcasts are outside. The disciple, sisya should possess in addition to the social, physical qualities, mental, moral and spiritual. With the ceremony of "Upunayana" started studying, it symbolizes the spiritual birth of the student, who receives from his guru, a mantra or sacred formula. For years seek knowledge through the truth that puts the teacher, will be devoted to reflection and yogic meditation.

The contents to be studied from a dual literary canon, one in Sanskrit, the Vedic language and another in Pali, the Buddhist. The first consists of the sacred books called "sruti" means Vedas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads, They follow the "smriti" covering topics in astronomy, grammar, math, history and law, all of them in the form of aphorisms, proverbs and maxims sentential. The Buddhist canon or "tripitaca" is the Vinaya Pitaka On discipline, Sutta Pitaka dealing with disclosure and Abhidhamma Pitaka. The student must memorize and reflect on the exegesis that the guru imparts intellectual whose authority is beyond doubt, the disciple should worship their master.

The fundamental goal of education is liberation from ignorance, "moksha". It seeks to educate the men in obedience, respect for parents and piety to the gods, the woman must learn the virtues of submission and worship the husband, fidelity, chastity and obedience, resignation, joy and bring home perfectly.

Education in India

The India has been one of the main places of learning for thousands of years, dating back to ancient seats of learning as Nalanda. In modern times, in India, educational institutions (like IITs,AIIMS,IIMs,IISc, NITs, ISI,JU,BITS and ISB) are well known.

India, despite being a developing country, has set challenges and educational initiatives, one of the main concepts in primary education is to achieve achieve 100% literacy. The universal and compulsory primary education, with their maintenance problems of poor children in school and maintaining quality of education in rural areas has been difficult to achieve, Kerala is the only Indian state to reach this goal so far.

All levels of education in India, from primary to higher education, are overseen by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (Department of Higher Education (India) and the Department of School Education and Literacy), and heavily subsidized by the Government of India, although there is a movement for higher education partially self-financing. The Indian government is considering to allow 100% FDI in higher education also has contributed to improvements within it.

Primary education
The Indian government has put major emphasis on primary education until the age of fourteen years (known as primary education india)